The City Wall

A 35km long wall surrounding the old city, built by emperor HongWu in the Ming-dynasty, about 600 years ago as a defence work

The remains of the Wall of the city Jinling

Close to the Qinhuai river remains of the walls of the city Jinling are still visible. The walls were erected by king Xiongshang, king of the Chu kingdom when he established the city of Jinling as his capital in 333 BC. The city was later used by emperors of the Eastern Jin dynasty, Song dynasty, Qi dynasty, Liang kingdom and Chen dynasty as their capital

Chaotian Palace (朝天宫)

Chaotian palace is a complex of buildings, in the center of which is the Wen Temple, which was built with precious materials, including yellow glazed tile was from Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province. It was built as an imperial palace in the Ming dynasty, and today it is the Nanjing Municipal Museum. The site of the palace was once the Imperial Central University in Song dynasty of Southern Dynasties.
Chaotian Palace was first built by Emperor Hongwu in late 14th century during the early Ming dynasty. It was used primarily by members of the royalty for "veneration of ancestors" and for the training of their children in court manners and court ceremony. Records show that a metal workshop existed on this spot some 2500 years ago

Ming Xiaoling or Ming Tomb

The Xiaoling Tomb is the mausoleum of Zhu Yuanzhang or emperor Hongwu (1327 - 1398), the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, and Empress Ma (died in 1382). The tomb was originally built in the 14th year of the Hongwu period of the Ming dynasty in 1381 and it is one of the largest ancient imperial mausoleums remaining in China.
The monument has been damaged by war activities several times, however the general lay-out remained unchanged. The existing buildings include Xiama Archway, the Dajin Gate, the Stele Pavilion, the Sacred Path, the Civil and Military Gates, the Imperial Tablet Hall, the Sacrificial Hall, the Rectangular Citadel, the Ming Tower and the Tomb Mound.
The Ming Tomb was the first of new lay-out system for the building, with the court in the front and the residence buildings in the back. This system was followed by all the other imperial mausoleums.

Xiamafang (下马坊), entering the city

In the old times people had to dismount from their horses at Xiamafang (下马坊). The gate gives access to a park nowadays


The use of astronomical instruments dates back to more than 3000 years ago. On the tops of the Purple Mountain some instruments remain from the Ming Dynasty (1430) and are on display.
The Purple Mountain Observatory (Zijinshan Astronomical Observatory) is the most well-known observatory in China. Situated on the third peak of the Purple Mountain, the observatory was established in 1926 and is now under direction of Chinese Academy of Sciences. It has been listed as one of the highest ranking research institutions for astronomy and space sciences since then. It also opens to public as a tourist destination.

Sanshan garden (三山园)

This house, office and garden belonged to a high government official. It was given as a reward for services by the emperor. The house and garden date back to the 19th century. It is located not far from the Fuzi Temple area and has a metro station named after it.
Currently it is attracting people mainly by its beautiful gardens. In some of the buildings exhibitions are created and the history of the location is explained in more detail

Sun Yat Sen (孫逸仙), the first president of the republic of China

In 1912 Sun Yat-sen (孫逸仙), leader of the Kuomintang party, became the first president of the Republic of China after the fall of the Qing dynasty. Sun wanted to reform China into a modern, western oriented society and introduce democracy. The presidential palace can be found in the centre of Nanjing, a mausoleum was built in 1926 not long after his quite unexpected death. The mausoleum is built on a peak of the purple mountain, not far from the tomb of the first Qing emperor.
Adjacent to the (former) presidential palace is now a spot named 1912, with a lot of bars, restaurants, and clubs.

After his death a Mausoleum was built on one of the tops of the Purple Mountain

The Chiang Kai Shek (蒋介石) period

After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-Shek took his position and led the Kwomintang party. Chiang Kai-Shek then lived in Nanjing together with his wife Song Meiling. When Chiang Kai-Shek had to flee from China and took refuge in Taiwan, his wife stayed in Nanjing and continued living in her house on the foot of the purple mountain. The house is now open to visitors

Song Meiling's house

Song Meiling, the wife of Chang Kai-Shek, lived in this house until she died, even after her husband left for Taiwan

Linggu Pagoda and Tan YanKai Tomb

During the time of the first republic several monuments were build. Here you will see the Linggu Pagoda and the tomb of Tan YanKai, a prominent government official and president of the Republic of China in 1928. The Pagoda used to be a memorial tower of the "Revolutionary Army".
The Linggu Pagoda received its name from the nearby temple complex, Linggu Temple

The first bridge, connecting north and south Nanjing

The first bridge, connecting north and south Nanjing, was opened in 1968 by Mao Zedong. It is a constuction of steel with two decks. The lower deck is used by trains. The bridge spans approximately 1.5 km. Construction started in 1960 with the help of Russian engineers. It was later finished by Chinese after te Russians withdrew from the project. The bridge allowed a direct connection between Beijing and Shanghai by rail.

The landside stands are decorated with typical socialistic style sculptures, glorifying labor. Note the references to the book of Mao Zedong, the famous "red book"